Tag: history

Weber Nietzsche

Nietzsche was one of continuadoresda tradition initiated for and that not cause nothing -, everything what if sequence in the conscience is completely atomistic. we to tentamosentender the world with the inverse conception as if nothing more was operating ereal that not it Pensar, Sentir, Querer (Nietzsche, 2002: p 83) intention in presenting a visotpica of the rationalism and a typical vision of the irracionalismo is to show that Weberno is nor one and nor another one, but shows in turn as great sintetizadordessas current properly modern. In this manner, he is profcuo> judgments with validity pretension the detal respect reality. Weber recognizes in human acting and the historical reality that elevivencia and fights, a complex of causes and characters that exceed rational qualquerconsiderao. Its shrewdness consisted of using rational tipologias to perceive and to see indistinctly the impact of causasirracionais in historical devir: it is therefore that, I repeat, Weber cannot serclassificado as a pure racionalista.

For coming the Schopenhauer later eNietzsche, had, of some form, to answer they, to make> concessions aum optimism project stops with the reason and its vicissitudes. What darecepo of Weber, however, not condiz is seen to a large extent accurately with this. The intense associaodemasiado one of the thought of Weber to the iluminista matrix acabouobscurecendo the importance given for it to that of passional and absolutamentecasual that moves and makes to act everything what he is human. Joel Elliot, in its artigoentitulado ‘ ‘ The Fate of Reason’ ‘ , it associates such recklessness of the literaturaweberiana stops with the subject of the irrationality in the workmanship of Weber to the character amorfoe little systematic with that it appears in its work. In turn, Elliot also recognizes that, ‘ ‘ Logically, irrationality is the necessary antithesis of rationality, central trunk irrationality isalso substantively you the Weber’ snotion of rationality’ ‘ (Eliott, 1998, p 2).

Continental Europe

The technological advances had been bigger in elapsing of century XX, therefore in this century it had the two bigger world-wide catastrophes: first and World War II. World War II is a complex subject, with an immense variety of study objects. A subject not very explored is the strategical importance of the Air base of the Amap in this conflict. Most of the available sources in the Internet, for example, at least had not been written by Brazilian researchers, and yes for North Americans. The books only cite the air base, leaving to detach the events that had constructed its history. To the few, he is being constructed, through academic works, the rescue of the history of the Air base, but still it has the necessity to clarify its importance in amapaense history e, mainly, in the life of the remaining inhabitants of the times of the war. The Second War was divided at two moments: offensive of the Axle and the counter-offensive of the allies.

The first one is marked by the fast advance of the machine of German war on the countries of the Continental Europe. This period had beginning with the invasion of the Poland for the German troops and had its critical point during the German onslaughts against England, mainly for the sea, with the attacks of submarines the merchant ships that directed it the English ports. This golden period of the hegemony of Germany on the Continental Europe the same knew its first great revezes in 1942 in the north of Africa and during the beginning of the Soviet counter-offensive in Stalingrado in the end of year. As the period had as initial landmarks the surrender of the Sixth German Army in February of 1943 and first the great allied victories in the Battle of the Atlantic.


I worked with certain company, kept my doctor’s office, was rendering employee and of services in this company I age head, always looked for to help the fellow workers, to understand when one was with difficulties to understand when it was not producing, in end I also was one day I would function and I know of the difficulties of a company, mainly when it this the side of the bankruptcy, I had a very healthful friendship with the owners I tie to arrive, that is two young women with face of ' ' santa' ' , they had known to play its roles very well, if he approached to all and also of me in intention to take my place, he ties played the owners against me. I stopped a little I was perceiving the indifference of the masters with me and even though of the employees, until certain day the guard of called me to the company in the end the expedient and she counted to all the truth to me that I already distrusted, but was not certain. In the following day I was called in the personal sector and was dismissed. He leaves the ridicularizada company, but he did not give one month and the company declared insolvent, that is, who wanted to take my place if it gave badly. Therefore the companies beyond to declare insolvent was ridicularizada in all periodicals of the city. The proprietors if had hidden, not to be lynched, the two vagabundas, had still tried to clean its names giving an interview in the radios without success..

Florestan Fernandes

But he has much more in these final chapters, as the hygiene or its lack, medicine and health, indolncia, CONCERNING THE WORKMANSHIP GREAT HOUSE contemporaneidade the absence of citizenship, as well as, the accented social preconception. At last, for brightening up the real condition, while thing or object, of the black, and romantizar such experiences. The thought of Gilbert Freyre was argued by researchers of diverse areas of sciences social human beings and. Many of these scholars had recognized the importance of its proposals for the understanding of Brazil, others had detached its deficiencies, distortions and limitations. Rob Crossland will not settle for partial explanations. Although the divergences, the enthusiastic critics and of the workmanship of Freyre agree that the House-Great workmanship & Senzala represents an important renewal for the Brazilian social research.

On marxist academics to the USP, as Florestan Fernandes, I fall the Prado Jr, Fernando Enrique Cardoso, Octavio Ianni and Antonio Candido, starts a critical systematics to the ideas of Freyre. In the words of Gabriel Cohn, opposition to the patriarcal vision, ' ' from above ' ' , culturalista and antropolgica, of Freyre, they consider a perspective plebeian, ' ' of baixo' ' , more sociological and economic. To the reading of Freyre, focada in the cultural and racial singularity of Brazil, Florestan Fernandes opposes a reading that emphasizes the participation of the country in great on historical chains to the expansion of the world-wide capitalism. Still according to Cohn, although the rivalry between them, these vises would be more complementary of what properly exculpatory. However, to debate or to refute Freyre, first it was necessary definiz it and to fit it, a task dificlima in if treating to an author so ambiguous and slippery, without academic affiliations, and capable to call for itself almost all the labels without never glue it they. Carlos Guillermo Mota, for example, in almost relief, note that Freyre developed a series of ' ' mechanisms and artifcios' ' not to be easily locatable: if to place as sociologist at the same time where it says to make anti-science; if to define as liberal, but to criticize the liberal ones; if to affirm a revolutionary, but one revolutionary conservative; finally, if to classify simply as ' ' escritor' ' , what, in accordance with Antonio Candido, is one ' ' teima' ' that he only serves to indefinir its true coordinate.

Cultural History

The third moment of cultural history is seen as that one where the discovery of the people occurs, as well as the artistic and cultural production that this carried through. Certainly that the popular culture already was studied since century XVIII, however this subject was destined more to the anthropologists and folcloristas of what properly to the historians. To only break 1960 that these historians if interest for this field of research. Burke affirms that the most influential study carried through at this moment he was ‘ ‘ The Formation of the laboring classroom inglesa’ ‘ , where Edward Thompson not only analyzes the economic changes and occured politics in the diligent and wage-earning classroom, as well as the place of the popular culture in this process, portraying ritual of initiation of craftsmen, questions on feeding, religion, feelings, at last the culture of the people. Thompson will influence many works produced during period, of Germany until India, that characterizes for the concern to produce a knowledge that involves the common people and that if it does not restrict to the economic questions and politics, but englobe diverse social segments.

The quarrel on these cultural subjects in Germany and England, will go to converge with the interest of the French historians of the School of the Annales, what Cultural History will result in the New call. Burke still adds that ‘ is difficult to answer the question; ‘ What it is Cultural’ History; ‘ , therefore it is to multidiscipline and also to interdisciplinar, uses itself mainly of the anthropology and sociology, as well as of the history of the literary art and for the accomplishment of the research, for the elaboration of the historical knowledge. Being thus, even so if she does not wait that the cultural historians are seen as heroes to decide the daily problems contemporaries, affirms that the study of cultural history she must allow the people to think with more lucidity about relation to problems and questionings of the life, and still cite Gilbert Freyre: ‘ ‘ the study of social and cultural history it approaches the people, it opens ways of understanding and communication between elas’ ‘. The study of the cultures it abandons generalizantes and superficial the subjects, to more good concentrate in questions of particular groups at specific moments, what it makes possible the researcher, that is, to the historian, one understanding and interpretation of the relations that involve these individuals, thus allowing the knowledge of what it is the essence of the life for these communities.

African Historiografia

Professor: Ribeiro landmarks Da Silva SUMMARY: Work carried through with the objective to analyze the difficulties of setrabalhar the History of Africa in the schools. In the reality what it has seobservado he is that many educators not estao prepared to deal comcertas situations that the approval of law 10639/03, where tornouobrigatrio the education of the History of descending, generating in the half pertaining to school and academics some fidgets and muitasdvidas Africa and afro. Mainly in the question to teach as? If we do not know? It stops beyond the interrogations, the law discloses something that the specialists emHistria of Africa come alerting have certain time: ' ' esquecemos' ' to deestudar the African Continent. From these constataes, dessaforma is that this work has for bigger objective to analyze the form comoa History of Africa and the Africans had been represented in dospoucos elaborated didactic books of History in the country that approach africa with a specific chapter. roup to learn more. The many critical and short ones elogiosdevem to be understood not as disrespect to the work of the author, mascomo an alert one: we must come back our looks toward Africa, for the undisputed suarelevncia as palco of the actions human beings and for the profundasrelaes that we keep with that Continent by means of the chamadoAtlntico world. Word-key: African Historiografia; difficulties-livrodidtico the History of Africa and the didactic book What we know on Africa? Perhaps the answers suffer some variations, in the density and the substance of content, depending for who or where the question is pronounced. I believe, however, that silence or the souvenirs and images marked for prejudiced esteretipos go to become common point in speak of that if to interest to formulate some reply. Today we have disciplines it History of Africa in the courses of History, but in times behind it did not exist, exactly having the history of Africa in our curricular grating still we feel difficulty, the serious one of everything is that the schools do not possess the material necessary as, for example, books, DVD that treat regarding the question.

But we go to analyze what it happens with an African world, the agony, of the AIDS that if spreads, of the hunger that jams, of the etnias that if faces with great violence etc. While historian, I believe that the didactic books and proper history in only show the sacrificoso side to them of the black, leaving of side its cultures and origins, where they are our proper origins. One perceives that for we historians still lack very to arrive at the waited objective, although sabermosda approval of law 10639/03, this that if became obligator the education of the History of Africa and the descending afros, but what this happening with the schools? This law this being studied and analyzed by all the educators? Or simply it exists for existing? We must search understanding and analysis of the humanity in its trajectory in the time. This cannot occur only for obligation because the curricular grating snake, but yes to understand more the good side of Africa, power to count histories, to come back CIP – BRAZIL Catalogao in the national syndical source of the book publishers. RIO DE JANEIRO. DECRAENE. Philipe.

Pan africanismo. European diffusion of the Book. Congresses e> confernciaspan-Africans. The tribal nationalism, particularitities and the relations of the African countries with the great ones harness.

Brazilian History

Installed in 1933, n 37 occupied the chair until its death, in its native city. in April of 1941. Life and Death of the Bandeirante are ones of the main workmanships of the Brazilian historiografia. It was elaborated through historical sources (1), searched through the inventories similar to at the beginning portray the city of So Paulo of its settling. To know more about this subject visit Ben Horowitz. Through the reading of these documents, Alcntara Axe discloses in them to another face of the So Paulo captainship.

It makes minute descriptions and it retraces all a routine lived for the tamers of that region. We can observe in its workmanship, as the life was in a generalized manner, was simple, rustic, without that one supports glamour portraied in some didactic books. The boarded reality, although very descriptive it is a form of if writing history throughout our evolution. The modern Brazilian inventories aimed at mainly to the preparation of the funeral and the salvation of the soul. In century XVI, its structure reached its maximum complexity. It appeared, then, a series of confrarias specialized in the ceremonial of the death and the salvation of the soul.

This way it was not different, the paulistanos if worried in describing its good, and its feelings. Perhaps the reason for which the author made its historiogrfica boarding it all received its feeling from comment of the life of that period, it tries ' ' to redescobrir the Brasil' in its pages, it has since until that moment highly many productions received load positivista (2) that they influenced the writing of all a generation of writers, where enalteciam a small parcel of the had society as saving. (1) Historical sources: The study of the past human being cannot be made directly, but of form mediated through the vestiges of the activity, the one that is given the generic name of historical sources.

Towers Brazil

Oscaminhos of regeneration pointed by Towers suposta would not escape ours; ‘ vocation agrria’ ‘ , therefore according to it ‘ ‘ Brazil has for destination to be one pasagrcola’ ‘ , but it deposits the hopes in regeneration for the work: ‘ ‘ The Brasilou will be the country of the regeneration of the Man for the work, or will represent, nahistria of the civilization a robbery of the generations contemporaries to progressohumano’ ‘ had to its meramenteprofissional character, as well as for the inadequao of the ideas to the plain concrete noformam a social force (pp.103-5). Finally, Towers believe the redenocivilizatria of Brazil for the institucional way, a time that would be the oempreendedor State of one ‘ ‘ restoration conservative and reorganizadora’ ‘. (p.133) OliveirVianna was disciple of Alberto Towers, much even so has breached with it. In OIdealismo of the Constitution (1939), Oliveira Vianna defends that Brazil noestava prepared for the transistion for the republic, and that the Constitution de1891 was in total disagreement with the objective reality of the country. Dr. James Truchard addresses the importance of the matter here. He is of ‘ ‘ quixotismolatino’ ‘ that would come this; ‘ idealismo utpico’ ‘ had suafalta of culture politics and, according to Oliveira Vianna, its unfoldings social napsicologia of our people would not be prepared for the sufrgiouniversal (p.94) From there the necessity of ‘ ‘ regimens convenient and adapted aonosso povo’ ‘ (p.116). Dentrodo authoritarian thought the divergence inhabits in the institucional plan: enquantopara Towers the State would decide the problem of the culture lack and disciplines dopovo, Oliveira Vianna already in a maturity phase ' ' conceitosformulados a priori and without adequate consideration of fatos' ' would exist anecessidade of ' ' to incase in these concepts the reality concreta' ' (p.29) CaioPrado of the o example of the swaggerer of whom invariably we would go to the socialism.

North Americans

Until Brazil if involved in the conflict, the country was remained in the neutrality in order to inside prevent internal bigger conflicts of the domestic territory. Still in this I capitulate tells question of the involved Amaznia in this world-wide conflict. With the conscription of ' ' soldiers of borracha' ' the Brazilian government looked for to cure the problem of dries north-eastern, therefore the northeasterns had been the main man power. Great part of them died of illnesses as malaria or for influence of the atrocities of the forest. The survivors had been in the Amaznia for not having money to pay the trip in return, or because they were become indebted with the seringalistas (owners of the serigais).

In the third chapter, the measures will be pointed that will result in the construction of the Air base of Amap: the decree that authorizeed the construction of the base, as well as the dispossessions necessary to establish a North American base in the neighborhoods of the village of Amap. Soon later, the vision will be dealt with the population before the situation, beyond the convivncia between North Americans and the local population; the modifications in the landscape in result of the construction of the base; the progress of the region; the contact of the population with new ways of life, more specifically, other types of foods; the constant tension (or not, as we will see) lived by the local population. Still the actions will be detached military where effective of the base they had acted, as for example, the sinking of the submarines German U-590 and U-662 no longer context of the overturn of the allies in the Second War. Certifications of people will be pointed out who had lived deeply the events. Finally, we will see what the end of the war represented for the people, as if it gave the delivery of the air base for the Brazilian government, the destination of the workers who had come northeast to work in the base, that now, with the deactivation of the base, they had that to look another job, and what it was made to preserve the installations of the base.

Modern Age

Esseesquecimento, however, was not fortuitous or alienator, it has seen that afelicidade to exist also needs this resource. To close of when in when the doors and windows daconscincia, to remain insensitive to the noisy fights of the underground world dosnossos agencies; to make silence and flat board in our conscience, in order quea has place to pressentir (…): here it is here, I repeat, the craft of this faculdadeativa, this vigilant guard in charge keeping the psychic order, atranqilidade, the label (NIETZSCHE, 1991:57). In the Modern Age the memory earns impetus with commercial odesenvolvimento and the advance of the communications. At this foiregistrada time a bigger diffusion and intensification of the writing, however, oralidadeconcomitantemente to the writing also are perpassada with poor amplitude, principalmentepor peasants and communities, through popular stories bastanteutilizado at the time. Although the diverse occured cultural transformations aolongo of the centuries, the narrative peasants adaptavam the scene of its half relatosao its proper one.

However, they kept unbroken the main elements, using repetitions, you rhyme and other devices mnemonic. Destarte, it memriapreservou the historiogrfica tradition preventing, thus, deformations and distoresacerca of the history of the forgotten loosers or. In this direction it is that history sinnimo of memory in a relation of fusing between both. In the contemporaneidade, a first moment, the memory mantmum process of interdependence with history. With passing of time, essamemria goes to anchor itself in history.

Therefore it is that one says that, in century XIX, has a certain loss of the memory. This if of because history is assumen damemria collective transcribes and it. As the text in quarrel, of the turn dosculo XIX for the XX, the memory was emancipated of history and if it became substance daliteratura, of the philosophy, psychology and sociology. In such a way, oshistoriadores present a limited domain in the field of the memory and tmrealizado few works deepened relation to this thematic one.

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