Tag: technology

Network Management Protocol

Types of Manage Nets the measure that had been if spreading, had been also appearing vary forms of manage that they function in accordance with> level of computerization of the company being that, in the Centered Management an only manager controls the process and the problems with the centered models of gerenciamentos of nets become more critical in the ratio where the net grows, in the Decentralized Management the activities are distributed, therefore has several responsible we for the management allowing that the work is made of hierarchic form, that is, each knot responsible for is determined type of managemental activity. we have the model where the net administrators are alerted of problems occurred in the infrastructure and start to act in its solution also known as Reactive Management, and the Pro-Active Management that acts in the direction to try to prevent the interruption of the services. Independent of the type of management a infinity of how much in such a way gratuitous paid tools exists that assist the administrators of net in these functions. With this increasing necessity of management, one became necessary that standards for these tools were established. In reply to this necessity two standards had appeared: Family of Protocols SNMP: protocol SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) mentions a set to it of standards for management that includes a protocol, a specification of structure of data, and a set of objects of data.

This protocol today already is in its second official version, call of SNMPv2. already exists studies for the development of the SNMPv3. This is the protocol of manages adopted as standard for nets TCP/IP, and that here it will be treated. Systems of management OSI: this term mentions a great set to it of standards of great complexity, that define applications on purpose general for manage of nets, a service of management and protocol, a specification of structure of data, and a set of objects of data.

Ball Valves In The Oil Industry

One of the most economical and versatile ways to transport oil is the use of oil pipelines. An integral part of any oil pipeline is a ball valve. Ball valve as part of the transport pipeline performs a very important function. It lies in the fact that in the event of an accident on the pipeline section allows you to fully tap shut off the flow of technical fluid going through it. Thereby achieved several important goals. Educate yourself with thoughts from Jonas Samuelson.

First, stop leak expensive oil, reducing unforeseen financial losses incurred. Second, prevent pollution, warns complaints from environmentalists to the police. That, in turn, prevents not only the associated cash costs, but also undesirable publications in the media, which can damage image component of the company – owner of the pipeline. The main feature of the ball valve is that it can not be adjusted to the flow of oil passing through the pipeline. It provides only its complete coverage or full opening. In the oil pipelines are primarily used ball valves flanged type, as more universal.

The main material used in the field full bore ball valve is stainless steel of various grades. Cranes of this material is characterized by high durability, reliability, adequate resources, the necessary chemical inertness with respect to oil. Same important factor causing this kind of choice is their taps rather low price. The advantages of ball valves are the same: the constructive simplicity, easy control of this technical unit, crane of this type make it possible to clean the pipeline, due to its complete patency. Significantly and that the ball valves have a low hydraulic resistance, allowing you to minimize losses pressure in the oil pipeline, and thus reduce the total number of pressure stations. A small height of the technical device can be installed on the site of the oil pipeline in virtually any position. With that said, full bore ball valves, stainless steel is the best choice for use in the oil industry.

Civil Engineering Characteristics

The PEX substitutes other hydraulical systems with praticidade and better performance. Used wide in the Europe and brought for Brazil for the Astra company, this solution was adopted successfully in enterprises already delivers. According to BARBI OF BRAZIL (Barbi of Brazil – Pipes and Connections PEX: catalogue. So Paulo. 3 P.) ‘ ‘ Reticulao is a chemical process that the thermoplastic polyethylene suffers during the process of manufacture of the pipe, transforming into a new material that we start to call reticulado polyethylene or PEX abreviadamente. This new material possesss characteristics of resistance to the pressure and the very superior temperature to polyethylene normal’ ‘. Learn more at: Douglas Oberhelman. The PEX brings advantages in such a way for the constructor how much for the user.

For working with hoses instead of pipes, the system diminishes the use of connections to make the great majority of the curves of the tubing. They are characteristics that add in quality and praticidade. The prensagem between connections provides to durability to the installations, guaranteeing a bigger estanqueidade. The maintenance is very lesser, and excuses the necessity to break walls to find the pipe defective.